Bakteri Model 3D

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Bakteri adalah domain mikroorganisme prokariotik. Bakteri biasanya memiliki beberapa mikron panjangnya, sel-sel mereka dapat memiliki bentuk yang bervariasi: dari berbentuk bola hingga berbentuk batang dan berbentuk spiral.

Bacteria is one of the first forms of life on Earth and occurs in almost all terrestrial habitats. They inhabit the soil, fresh and marine reservoirs, sour hot springs, radioactive waste and deep layers of the earth’s crust. Bacteria are often symbionts and parasites of plants and animals. Most bacteria are not described to date, and representatives of only half of the bacterial types can be grown in the laboratory. Bacteria are studying the science of bacteriology – a section of microbiology.

Satu gram tanah, rata-rata, mengandung 40 juta sel bakteri, dan dalam satu mililiter air tawar orang dapat menemukan sejuta sel bakteri. Di Bumi ada sekitar bakteri 5 × 1030 dan biomassa mereka melebihi total biomassa hewan dan tumbuhan. Mereka memainkan peran penting dalam sirkulasi nutrisi, misalnya, bakteri yang memperbaiki nitrogen atmosfer. Mereka juga membusuk sisa-sisa hewan dan tumbuhan melalui pembusukan. Bakteri ekstremofilik, yang hidup di dekat sumber hidrotermal dingin dan panas, menghasilkan energi dari senyawa tak larut seperti hidrogen sulfida dan metana. Diasumsikan bahwa bakteri juga hidup di Rongga Mariana, memiliki kedalaman 11 kilometer. Ada laporan tentang bakteri yang hidup di bebatuan 580 meter jauh di bawah dasar laut pada kedalaman 2.6 kilometer dekat timur laut Amerika Serikat.

The human microflora is 39 trillion bacterial cells (the human body itself consists of about 30 trillion cells). The most numerous intestinal microflora, the skin is also inhabited by many bacteria. Most bacteria living in the human body are harmless due to the immune system’s containment, and some even benefit. A number of bacteria are pathogenic to humans. Infectious diseases such as cholera, syphilis, anthrax, leprosy and bubonic plague are caused by bacteria. The largest number of deaths is caused by bacterial respiratory infections, and only tuberculosis kills 2 million people a year (mainly in sub-Saharan Africa). In developed countries antibiotics are used not only for the treatment of human diseases, but also in livestock breeding, due to which the problem of resistance to antibiotics is becoming more and more relevant. In the industry, bacteria are used in the treatment of sewage, to eliminate oil spills, to obtain cheese and yogurt, to restore gold, palladium, copper and other metals from ores, as well as in biotechnology, to produce antibiotics and other compounds.