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Leaf – in botany, the outer organ of the plant, whose main functions are photosynthesis, gas exchange and transpiration. For this purpose, the sheet, as a rule, has a lamellar structure in order to give the cells containing chlorophyll in the chloroplasts access to sunlight. The leaf is also the organ of respiration, evaporation and guttation (excretion of water droplets) of the plant. Leaves can retain water and nutrients, and in some plants perform other functions.
Sebagai aturan, lembaran terdiri dari kain berikut:
Epidermis – a layer of cells that protect against the harmful effects of the environment and excessive evaporation of water. Often, on top of the epidermis, the leaf is covered with a protective layer of waxy origin (cuticle).
Mesophyllum, atau parenkim, adalah jaringan internal yang mengandung klorofil yang melakukan fungsi utama - fotosintesis.
Jaringan pembuluh darah yang dibentuk oleh balok konduktif (jaringan konduktif) yang terdiri dari bejana dan tabung saringan untuk memindahkan air, garam terlarut, gula, dan elemen mekanis.
Stomach – special cell complexes located mainly on the lower surface of the leaves; through them, evaporation of excess water (transpiration) and gas exchange occurs.
Epidermis – the outer layer of the multilayer cell structure, covering the sheet from all sides; border area between leaf and environment. The epidermis performs several important functions: it protects the leaf from excessive evaporation, regulates gas exchange with the environment, releases metabolism substances and in some cases absorbs water. Most leaves have dorsoventral anatomy: the upper and lower surfaces of the leaf have a different structure and perform different functions.